Tutorial: Piezoelectrics in Nanopositioning, Designing with Piezoelectric Actuators
Piezo Actuators | Piezo Linear Motors | Piezo Tip/Tilt Platforms | Piezo Ceramic Materials | Precision Actuator Overview |
 Online Piezo Tutorial Table of Contents




Fundamentals of Piezoelectricity

Displacement of Piezo Actuators

Sensors / Metrology

Methods to Improve Piezo Dynamics

Basic Designs of Piezoelectric Positioning Drives/Systems

Parallel and Serial Kinematics / Metrology

Piezo Stacks and Chips

Piezo Flexure Stages

Piezo Linear Motor Actuators

Piezo actuators are vital elements in today's ultra-precision motion control systems. They provide the highest accuracy, speed and resolution.

To use the advantages of piezoelectric positioning technology to its full extent, it is important to carefully analyze the application in which a piezo actuator or nanopositioning stage is to be used as a whole. Close contact between user and manufacturer is the best recipe for success.

Examples given in this tutorial indicate a small selection of the many applications common today. The relentless push for more accuracy and speed-whether in bio-nanotechnology, semiconductor / metrology, photonics / fiber optics or data storage devices-drives both the application and the continuous development of piezo technology.
Piezo Catalog Downloads (PDF)
Piezo Positioning Tutorial
Piezo Actuator Catalog
Piezo Nanopositioning Systems Catalog
Piezo Tilt Platforms (Steering Mirrors) Catalog
Piezo Motors Catalog
Piezo Driver/Controller Catalog
Piezo Assemblies Catalog
Piezoelectric Materials Catalog
Complete PI Catalog (20 MB)

Piezo Online Catalogs (HTML)
Piezo Actuators
Piezo-Driven Nanopositioning & Scanning Stages
Active Optics / Piezo-Driven High-Dynamics
     Steering Mirrors
Piezo Drivers, Piezo Amplifiers, Piezo
     Nanopositioning Controllers
Piezo Ceramic Linear Motors & Stages
Capacitive Nanometrology Position Sensors
Hexapods / Motorized Micropositioning Stages &
     Actuators
Photonics Alignment Solutions
Motion Controllers for Micropositioning Systems
 For Piezo Products & Data Sheets Visit the Products Overview Page

Online Piezo Tutorial Table of Contents
 Click for more detailed Table of Contents
 Features and Applications of Piezoelectric Positioning Systems
 Glossary
 Symbols and Units
 Introduction
 Quick Facts
 Fundamentals of Piezoelectricity
 Fundamentals of Piezomechanics
 Actuators and Sensors
 Fundamentals of Piezoelectric Actuators
 Dynamic Operation Fundamentals
 Piezo Actuator Electrical Fundamentals
 Control of Piezo Actuators and Stages
 Environmental Conditions and Influences
 Basic Designs of Piezoelectric Positioning Drives/Systems
 Parallel and Serial Kinematics / Metrology
 PMN Compared to PZT
 Summary
 Mounting and Handling Guidelines for Piezo Translators
 Click for more detailed Table of Contents
Piezo Tutorial Table of Contents: Chapters with Subsections
 Features and Applications of Piezoelectric Positioning Systems
 Glossary
 Symbols and Units
 Introduction
 Quick Facts
 Fundamentals of Piezoelectricity
      Material Properties
      PZT Ceramics Manufacturing Process
      Definition of Piezoelectric Coefficients and Directions
      Resolution
 Fundamentals of Piezomechanics
      Displacement of Piezo Actuators (Stack & Contraction Type)
      Hysteresis (Open-Loop Piezo Operation)
      Creep / Drift (Open-Loop Piezo Operation)
      Aging
 Actuators and Sensors
      Metrology for Nanopositioning Systems
      Indirect (Inferred) Metrology
      Direct Metrology
      Parallel and Serial Metrologie
      High-Resolution Sensors - Strain Gauge Sensors
      Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)
      Capacitive Position Sensors
 Fundamentals of Piezoelectric Actuators
      Forces and Stiffness
      Maximum Applicable Forces (Compressive Load Limit,
             Tensile Load Limit)

      Stiffness
      Force Generation
      Displacement and External Forces
 Dynamic Operation Fundamentals
      Dynamic Forces
      Resonant Frequency
      How fast can a Piezo Actuator Expand?
 Piezo Actuator Electrical Fundamentals
      Electrical Requirements for Piezo Operation
      Static Operation
      Dynamic Operation (Linear)
      Dynamic Operating Current Coefficient (DOCC)
      Dynamic Operation (Switched)
      Heat Generation in a Piezo Actuator in Dynamic Operation
 Control of Piezo Actuators and Stages
      Position Servo-Control
      Open- and Closed-Loop Resolution
      Piezo Calibration Data
      Methods to Imporve Piezo Dynamics
      InputShaping®
      Signal Preshaping / Dynamic Digital Linearization (DDL)
      Dynamic Digital Linearization (DDL)
 Environmental Conditions and Influences
      Temperature Effects
      Linear Thermal Expansion
      Temperature Dependency of the Piezo Effect
      Piezo Operation in High Humidity
      Piezo Operation in Inert Gas Atmospheres
      Vacuum Operation of Piezo Actuators
      Lifetime of Piezo Actuators
 Basic Designs of Piezoelectric Positioning Drives/Systems
      Stack Design (Translators)
      Laminar Design (Contraction-Type Actuators)
      Tube Design
      Bender Type Actuators (Bimorph and Multimorph Design)
      Schear Actuators
      Piezo Actuators with Integrated Lever Motion Amplifiers
      Piezo Flexure Nanopositioners
 Parallel and Serial Kinematics / Metrology
      Direct and Indirect Metrology
      Parallel and Serial Kinematics
 PMN Compared to PZT
      Electrostrictive Actuators (PMN)
 Summary
 Mounting and Handling Guidelines for Piezo Translators
Download the Complete PI PDF Catalog